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Legal Systems

Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Long times ago, since humans gradually settled a little group to help each other survive in this world. In each group of human, there was a leader who controlled and managed the group. When the problem had occurred he or she must judged and make a decision to solve the problems. The times past, a little group had became a larger group, groups had become a society. In the other word, society is a big community which containing many groups of people. As you can see, people started to have complicated connection while they had connected across the group. A leader's decision was not enough to judge the people. So, they had to find out another strategy to fix this problem which seem likes more and more out of control.
Legal Systems
Legal Systems
 Therefore, caused leader's decision cannot used as a standard in the society. They created a simple rules to control people's behavior by we did not have to wait for the wrong act to be done. This could be helpful to prevent people who was going to have a wrong doing. This simple rules might be different in other local area. It was depends on tradition or convention in each area for the comfort of the judge to adapt this rule in each case. They had also drafted the punishment in each case. Punishment was an essential element of the rules because people frightened the punishments, so they must realize to control their behavior to avoid the punishment. This is the beginning of the law.

Every decisions of the judge had record and reused for another case. The decision had become standard of the judge to justify the case. And this was the beginning of "Common Law" system.
When the time past, the simple rules still have a lot of gaps people learnt to use this gap to avoid sanction. So, the result was an obstacle in society when this simple rule cannot control people.

After that, administrators who govern the society started to draft the law which containing punishments, sanction and rules that covered all of the case.
So, the simple rules had been written in the code. When the judge had to justify each case, they can use this code instead of the simple rules which was unwritten law. This was the beginning of "Civil Law" system. The judge can makes the decision by refer to the articles in the code.

Legal Tips For Renters

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

There are some important things to remember when renting a property. Many landlords put illegal provisions into their contracts. It is illegal to include provisions that waive the tenets rights under the landlord tenet act, to include provisions that force tenets to pay the landlord's attorney fees, to seize their property, or to enter the rental property without proper notice. Specifically, the landlord must provide two days notice to a tenet before entering the rental property and cannot abuse the privilege to harass a tenet.

Legal Tips
Legal Tips For Renters
Tenets have a right to defend themselves in court that cannot be waived by a contract. Tenets cannot be locked out of apartments even if they are behind on rent, likewise they cannot shut off utilities for the same reason. Landlords cannot retaliate for legal actions against them. Landlords have a responsibility to provide numerous benefits to tenets, and if they fail to provide these things tenets can sue. These things include locks on doors, garbage cans, and keep the property free of pests such as termites and rats. The must keep the property weather-tight and maintain equipment and facilities so that they are of similar repair as when the tenet moved in. If you feel any of your rights have been violated, consult your leasing contract and an attorney. You may also wish to contact other tenets who believe their rights have been violated. A lawsuit might be more substantial with additional plaintiffs, and it allows additional financial resources to be brought to bear in financial the case.

Child Custody Laws

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Normally, the judge deciding child custody matters will consider the parents' wishes, the child's wishes, the relationship of the child to his siblings or others with whom he has contact, the child's likely adjustment to home, school, and community, and the mental and physical health of all individuals involved. The judge will also consider any past acts of domestic violence.

 Child  Laws
Child Custody Laws
The parents' religious practices Normally, the judge deciding child custody matters will consider the parents' wishes, the child's wishes, the relationship of the child to his siblings or others with whom he has contact, the child's likely adjustment to home, school, and community, and the mental and physical health of all individuals involved. The judge will also consider any past acts of domestic violence.

The parents' religious practices The parents' religious practices may be considered - if those beliefs or practices are harmful to the child (for example, refusing appropriate medical treatment). You do have some rights under child custody laws though.

The parents' sexual behavior The parents' sexual behavior might be considered if the behavior is considered damaging to the child - for example, having sexual relations in front of the child. Normally, the fact the one parent is homosexual will not affect that parent's right to custody, but in light of the discretion that judges have in making custody awards, you should ask a local lawyer whether this fact is considered significant by judges in your county.

May child custody be awarded to a non-parent? Custody may be awarded to a non-parent, but there is a strong presumption that the child should be with a parent. Judges have sometimes awarded custody to a stepparent. If you have questions about child custody laws, contact a divorce attorney near you.

A Brief Introduction to Patent Law

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

When a person invents something, there is an inherent risk that their invention will be copied by others. If it is copied, the rewards (financial or otherwise) for having invented the item may be enjoyed by someone other than the inventor. Prior to the introduction of patents, this risk was prevalent and inventors were often discouraged from their pursuits. To reassure inventors that their ideas would be safe from those who would steal them, the government established patent laws that protected inventors' rights. In this article, we'll explain what a patent is, how they work and what an inventor can do in the event his patent is violated.

Patent Law

A Brief Introduction to Patent Law

What Is A Patent?

A patent is a legal document that protects an invention from being used, copied, or manufactured by anyone other than the inventor (unless express permission is granted by the inventor). This protection lasts for a predetermined period of time. Once a patent expires, the invention loses its protection. There are 3 main types of patents: utility, design and plant patents. Utility patents protect inventions that involve machines, processes and biological or chemical compositions of matter. Design patents cover the aesthetic or ornamental design of articles of manufacture. Plant patents grant rights to anyone who has discovered (or created) a new plant by means of asexual reproduction.

The most common type of patent applied for and granted is the utility patent. If granted, they offer protection for 20 years (beginning from the application date). Design and plant patents are far less common. Design patents grant protection for 14 years while plant patents offer protection for 20 years.

The only person who is legally allowed to apply for a patent is the inventor. Even if the invention was created under the employ of someone else, only the inventor can apply. Once the patent is granted to the inventor, the rights can be transferred to the employer.

Recourse If A Patent Is Violated

If a patent is violated, it's the responsibility of the person or entity who holds the patent to pursue enforcement or recourse. This can become a complicated and expensive procedure. It's not uncommon for large corporations that have violated a patent to pursue the matter in court. This is especially true when a portion of their revenue is derived as a result of their patent violation. Because litigation can be cost prohibitive for many inventors, it may be worthwhile to consider selling the patent or arranging some form of licensing agreement with the company who is infringing upon the patent holder's rights.

Patent law was enacted in order to protect inventors' rights and to encourage the continued innovation of processes, methods and manufactured items. That being said, it is a complex field of law. You should speak with a patent lawyer before applying for a patent. If you hold a patent that another party has violated, an experienced attorney can prove valuable in exploring your options.

Cravens & Noll PC

Friday, April 25, 2014



When my nephew started hanging around the wrong crowd, we knew it was only a matter of time before he got into some serious trouble. By the time the cops finally came knocking on his mother’s door, we’d already been asking around our friends and family for the names of some experienced and successful criminal defense attorneys in Virginia. My nephew really is a good kid and we just didn’t want him having to face the consequences of juvenile decisions for the rest of his life.  When we found out he was facing drug possession charges, we knew that finding the right legal team to represent his interests was the only way to ensure he had the chance for a bright future. 
This was the first time my nephew, and my brother’s son, had ever gotten into trouble with the law, so we thought that there was a good chance of getting his charges and punishment reduced. But the only way we would be able to help him do this is by hiring a good lawyer. We’d heard that Cravens HYPERLINK "http://cravensnoll.com/"&HYPERLINK "http://cravensnoll.com/" Noll PC provided clients with free consultations, but this just seemed too good to be true! Many of the other law firms in our area with good reputations charged an arm and a leg for a first-time meeting. When it came down to it, we just didn’t have the money for this.
For criminal defense attorneys in Virginia that can put your mind at ease regarding finances and results, Cravens & Nolls PC is the way to go. From the friendly staff to the knowledgeable lawyers, we couldn’t have been more satisfied with the way we were treated by this legal team. They not only educated us about all of the option available for my nephew, but they went ahead and told us all of the possible outcomes he may face based on the drug charges, making sure we were prepared for anything that came our way.  We couldn’t have been happier with how helpful these legal professionals were, and how much respect they treated my nephew and our entire family with.
 

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